Information From the Sloan-Kettering Cancer
Center in New York City:
MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L.)
Mangosteen is a plant native to Southeast Asia. The fruits are used in
traditional medicine to treat skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea.
Recent studies have revealed that xanthones from the fruit hulls
exhibit antibacterial (3), antifungal (4), and antiinflammatory (5)
properties. Alpha-mangostin, a xanthone, inhibited growth of human
leukemia HL60 cells (1) (6), reduced the synthesis of prostaglandins (5),
and prevented oxidative damage of LDL (7) in vitro. There is also
preliminary evidence that alpha- and gamma-mangostins act as
histamine and serotonin receptor blockers (8), and also inhibit HIV-1
protease (9). Garcinone E, another xanthone, exerts cytotoxic effects
against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (10). Extract from the
pericarp of mangosteen has antiproliferative, antioxidative, and
apoptotic effects against human breast cancer SKBR3 cells (11). There
is no data from clinical trials to verify these effects in humans. No
adverse effects have been reported with the use of mangosteen.
Garcinia mangostana L.
• Bacterial Infections
• Fungal infections
• Skin infections
• Wound healing
• Wound healing
• Xanthones: alpha-mangostin, beta-mangostin, gammamangostin,
garcinone B, garcinone E
• Flavonoid: epicatechin
MECHANISM OF ACTION
The xanthones, alpha- and beta-mangostins, and garcinone B exhibit
strong inhibitory effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro (3).
Alpha-mangostin has been shown to inhibit growth of human
leukemia HL60 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis (1)
(6), reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting the activities
of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes (5), and prevent oxidative damage of
LDL by functioning as a free-radical scavenger (7). Alpha- and
gamma-mangostins also antagonize the activities of histamine and
serotonin by acting as receptor blockers (8). Garcinone E has cytotoxic
effects against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (10). In vitro
studies have also demonstrated that a crude methanolic extract from
the pericarp of mangosteen has antiproliferative, antioxidative, and
apoptotic effects against SKBR3 human breast cancer cells (11).
LITERATURE SUMMARY AND CRITIQUE
There is no clinical data available to support the beneficial effects of
mangosteen in humans.
(1) Matsumoto K, et al.Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from
mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod 2003;
(2) Suksamrarn S, et al. Xanthones from the green fruit hulls of
Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 2002; 65(5):761-763.
(3) Suksamrarn S, et al. Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated
xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull
(Tokyo) 2003; 51(7):857-859.
(4) Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathi B, Suresh G. Evaluation of the
antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana
and their synthetic derivatives. J Nat Prod 1997; 60(5):519-524.
(5) Nakatani K, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin
E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in
mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2002;
(6) Matsumoto K, et al. Preferential target is mitochondria in alphamangostin-
induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg
Med Chem 2004; 12(22):5799-5806.
(7) Williams P, et al. Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of
human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res 1995; 23(2):175-184.
(8) Chairungsrilerd N, et al. Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor
blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana.
Planta Med 1996; 62(5):471-472.
(9) Chen SX, Wan M, Loh BN. Active constituents against HIV-1
protease from Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1996; 62(4):381-
(10) Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative,
has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Planta Med 2002; 68(11):975-979.
(11) Moongkarndi P, et al. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and
induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on
SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;